7 Sexually Transmitted Infections: Symptoms, Treatment & Prevention!

Genital Warts

Sexually Transmitted Infections are one of the most common reasons for worry among adolescents & college students. There are a lot of persons walking with various forms of STIs. Delay in detection & treatment can lead to a number of complications in the future.

Table of Content

What are Sexually Transmitted Infections

STIs as the name says are infections that are transmitted from one person to another through sexual activities. This include all of vaginal, anal or oral intercourse.

What are the Causes of Sexually Transmitted Infections

STIs can be caused by a host of organisms such as;
Bacteria: like gonorrhoea, syphilis, etc.
Viruses: like herpes, hepatitis, HIV, etc
Fungi: like Candida
Some Parasites: such as scabies, pediculus pubis can be transmitted via intercourse. This however are not infections.

What are the Common Sexually Transmitted Infections

Let’s talk about the common STIs in our environment. We would start with;
Bacterial Causes such as

Syphilis

This is caused by a bacteria known as Treponema Pallidum. You can ignore the name if you can’t pronounce it. Just call it Syphilis. The bacteria enters through wounds on the skin around the genitals (penis or vagina). This bacteria can also be transmitted by kissing, blood transfusion or through pregnancy from mother to child.
Those infected with Syphilis usually notice it like 2 weeks to 3 month after the unprotected sex, through an ulcer around their genital area which is not painful. This might disappear later on its own. However, it would only come back worse later with rashes all over the body. Symptoms includes fever, tiredness & headache. Some persons would have ulcers on their genitals.

Complications include deafness, meningitis, etc.
Know that Syphilis can stay in your body for up to 10 years which affecting several organs. Syphilis in Pregnancy can result in miscarriage or give birth to a very sick baby.
Confirmation for Syphilis is through Laboratory test known as VDRL.
Treatment: Individuals with syphilis should see a doctor. The doctor after confirming Syphilis would prescribe penicillin for you, with the dose & how long you should take it. Please, do not self medicate.

Gonorrhoea

This is also caused by a bacteria known as Neisseria gonorrhoea. It can be transmitted through vaginal, anal or oral intercourse. It can affect the genital system as well as the eyes.
Symptoms in men include: discharge from the penis & pain on urination, although some may be not show any symptoms.
In females, most do not show any symptoms & hence, act as carriers. However, some persons might develop Pelvic Inflammatory Disease.
Diagnosis is through laboratory testing.
Treatment: see a doctor. You would be given a drug (ceftriaxone) and your doctor would let you know how many to take & for how long to take them. Do not self-prescribe.

Chlamydia

This is a similar infection to gonorrhoea & is also transmitted in the same way. Most men are usually without symptoms & usually act as carriers in this case.
In women, it can lead to vaginal discharge, painful urination, bleeding after sex or in between your periods. If untreated, it can lead to the development of PID with the risk of tubal damage & infertility.
Diagnosis: through laboratory investigation with vaginal smear.
Treatment: see a doctor. He/she would recommend the dose & duration of Azithromycin that you would take. Again, do not treat yourself. Antibiotics abuse is very dangerous.

Viral STIs include;

Herpes

This is caused by a virus known as the herpes simplex virus. There are two types; type 1 which causes ulcers in the mouth but can also cause in the genitals too. Type 2 cause ulcers in the genitals alone. It can be transmitted via vaginal, anal or oral intercourse. It can also be transmitted from mother to child & can cause brain damage or death to the child. Symptoms includes: pain around your genitals, pain on urination as well as ulcers around your mouth & genitals.
Treatment: See your doctor for dose & duration of Acyclovir that you would be taking. Know that the medicines are more effective if started as soon as possible.

Genital warts

This is caused by the Human papillomavirus (HPV). Some types of this virus are responsible for cervical cancer. It can take anytime from 3 months to 2 years after an unprotected intercourse for the warts to appear, and during this period, the person can be transmitting the virus.
Treatment: see you doctor. Podophyllotoxin therapy may be of help.
Vaccination is available & is used to prevent infections of HPV.

Sexually Transmitted Infections like Genital Warts are common.
Genital Warts seen in a male. Image Credits: Clarewell Clinics

Hepatitis

This can be transmitted through intercourse. You can read about it here. It is preventable through vaccination.

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)

This is a very serious condition. Just like hepatitis, it can be transmitted via intercourse & through blood transfusion. Read about it here.

Prevention of STIs

The only method of preventing STIs is to avoid unsafe sex. Practice the use of condoms at all times if abstinence is not possible.

  • If one STI Is detected, the person should also be screened for other STIs because they all go together.
  • Partners should be informed & treated as well in all cases of STIs.
  • Adolescents & young adults should enroll for vaccination in preventable STIs like Genital warts, Hepatitis among others.

Share the awareness!!

Authors

  • Obasi Chinedu David attended the College of Medicine, University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, in ituku-ozalla, Enugu state, Nigeria.

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